Prof. Dr. Kéri Katalin

PTE BTK Neveléstudományi Intézet – a http://kerikata.hu modernizált változata

Archive for 2008. október

Kinderdarstellung in den 1950er Jahren auf den Titelblattern der Zeitschrift Nők Lapja

Posted by ambrusa - 2008. október 4.

Kéri Katalin: Kinderdarstellung in den 1950er Jahren auf den Titelblattern der Zeitschrift Nők Lapja Szerző: Kéri Katalin
Cím: Kinderdarstellung in den 1950er Jahren auf den Titelblättern der Zeitschrift „Nők Lapja” / Children’s representation in the 1950s on the title leaves of the journal Nők Lapja (Magazine for Women)
Megjelenés: Neveléstudomány – iskola – gyermekkor Közép-Európában (1948-2008). Nemzetközi szimpózium, Egri Hittudományi Főiskola, Eger, 2008. október 2-4.
Licenc: © Kéri Katalin, 2008 | Hungary 2.5 [CC BY-NC-ND 2.5]
Letöltés: [.pdf] [.rtf] [.txt] [stream] [.epub] [.mobi] [.djvu]
Identifier: Internet Archive | Slideshare.net

Children’s representation in the 1950s on the title leaves of the journal Nők Lapja (Magazine for Women). The decade after 1950 was an eventful full period in the history of Hungary. After 1948 the country formed an organic part of the Soviet state system, so were the socialist industrialization, the socialist reorganization of agriculture, the introduction of the one-party system, a largely artificial and carried mobility in the society or the „place exchange” of the masses within the social structure, the planned economy and workforce, the timing of „vigilance” as well as the peace struggle typical specifics in this period.
The change in the history of childhood and in view of the child during this period were by the changes in international power relations, the cold war, the introduction of the planned economy, the extensive industrialization, the transformation of women’s roles, the steps of the foreign and Hungarian workers’ movement and by the changes in the policies of the Hungarian Workers’ Party (MDP) influenced in large measure.
During our research we have an iconographic study carried out in the magazine „Nők Lapja”, a prominent, nationwide (more urban), in its heyday in the 1.2 million copies published weekly paper of the Women’s Association, continues. From 1950 to 1959 we analyzed from various perspectives the approximately 150, children performing photos and drawings, published on the front page of the magazine. Among other things, we have investigated in which life situations, in which activities and with whom the children see, we have put to the test, in the performance evaluation of the photographs which connotative methods (such as knitting, photo genius, aesthetism) have been applied. We looked at the symbols and texts (the language elements) and the origin of the pictures and of the illustrations.
After studying the front pages of articles, continues the imagery of the magazine, it is clearly identified what the main elements of the children view were in the 1950s. The paper reported regularly on the inalienable and fundamental (and promising a rosy future) to improve the situation of children.
During this time, in the front pages we can see the chubby, smiling, beautiful boys and girls – at least in the case where a part of the illustration showing a socialist country and Hungary formed.
The children appeared on the title leaves the magazine not only as „symbols” of joy and happiness, but also as persons meaning the freedom struggle, the economic growth and socialist development. The children’ photographs were illustrations of the fulfillment of the five-year plan, of the subscription to a loan of peace, of the Soviet-Hungarian friendship, of the (Soviet) soldiers, and of the praise of order. They still never lacked for the political conventions and on the Party leaders performing photos and posters. If we see in different years published front pages look, it is notable that the children live presentation, as punctual and sensitive barometer, reflected the political changes. Between 1950 and 1953, during the government of Mátyás Rákosi as party president, the photographs were in almost every case bearers of political messages. The children on the title of leaves and the insides were in a vacuum or at industrial enterprises, heroic monuments, in processions or at party congresses, with Soviet soldiers, party leaders or with their mothers to see. The direct political statement (freedom struggle, planned economy, industrial development, power workers, etc.) was often characterized by slogans and symbols (red pentagram, pioneer’ and soldier’uniforms, pigeon of peace, machine-gun, flags) with political content emphasized.
Between 1953 and 1955, during the first presidency of Imre Nagy, the photos from everyday life replaced the formers photo-montages and the formers plastic-representations by real live detached moments: The children in these years are mostly in school and nursery school environment, with trips and on the beach to see.
A presentation of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution and its repression we are looking in vain at the children’s depictions of „Nők Lapja”. In the first years of the period, labeled with the name of János Kádár, from 1956 to 1959, released in this way formulated political messages are very cautious on the title leaves the magazine: the children are mostly in camps, while reading, we can see the games and sports, and their education to work gets a major role in the visual presentation: They are modeling, pottery, guard the geese or tinker.
Compared with the first half of the decade, it is a novelty that at the end of the’50s the familiar and religious celebrations on the title of the magazine leaves appear, it appears the images of the Easter traditions, the children day, waiting for Santa Claus and Christmas.
In summary, in the whole we can not speak of the children’s image of the Hungarian 50s’, because it changed (more or less) within that, in the political sense very colorful and eventful period from year to year, from the change of government to change of government. Although the suggestion of setting up of families with children, the achievement and strengthening of the happiness of the children backed socialist society is a permanent objective in this period, was reflected by the extent of the iconographic investigations (partially supplemented with text analysis) how many – sometimes imperceptibly fine and quiet – change happened in relation with the children as an expression of political interests, which is also reflects on the title leaves the weekly newsletter „Nők Lapja”.

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